Nuclear 123 Agreement

01.08.2008: IAEA Board of Governors unanimously adopts a safeguard agreement specific to India. The Trump administration largely ignored congressional concerns during the administration and even tried to circumvent the broader requirements of Section 123 by authorizing licenses for the transfer of unclassified nuclear technologies and services (such as reactor design and instructions) with countries like Saudi Arabia, which use a separate part of the Nuclear Energy Act (section 57) for a smaller nuclear cooperation that does not require or approval or approval of Congress. In 2006, Congress passed the Henry J. Hyde United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act, which amends the AEA to allow for nuclear cooperation with India, a country that is not a member of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and has no comprehensive security. The Hyde Amendment has been criticized for undermining U.S. international anti-proliferation efforts. The 40-year agreement with India came into force in December 2008. However, there have been other conflicting reports on China`s attitude. The Hindu said that while China had expressed its desire to include stricter language in the final draft, it had informed India of its intention to support the agreement. [131] In an interview with the Hindustan Times, Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Hu Zhengyue said that "China understands the need for India`s civil nuclear energy and the international cooperation related to it." [132] Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi told India`s CNN-IBN: "We did nothing to block it [to the agreement].

We have played a constructive role. We have also adopted a positive and responsible attitude and a security agreement has been reached, so that the facts speak louder... as some reports." [133] At a press conference in New Delhi, Yang added: "The policy was defined much earlier. When a consensus was reached, China had already made it clear that we had no problem with the NSG statement. [134] Yang stressed the importance of Sino-Indian relations and said, "Let`s work together [India and China] to go beyond doubt, to establish a stronger relationship between us." [135] September 13, 2008: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs publishes a brochure on the nuclear agreement that states that this initiative will help meet India`s growing energy needs and strengthen the non-proliferation regime by introducing New Delhi into world-renowned non-proliferation standards and practices. The Trump administration is currently negotiating a 123 deal with Saudi Arabia. The next agreement, which expires without conditions of renewal (which could trigger a simpler automatic extension without the agreement being renegotiated or resuscrate to Congress), will be concluded with Egypt in December 2021. For more information on individual agreements, visit the Congressional Research Service`s Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer. The most critical is that the bill has the potential to upset the existing standard for the passage of 123 agreements in Congress. If the cooperative nation has shown a certain propensity to muster secret nuclear weapons ambitions, the bill would require Congress to pass a joint resolution that would confirm the agreement so that it can enter into force.

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